Apexogenesis in pediatric dentistry

Dr. Khuong Nguyen

January 26, 2023

Apexogenesis dental refers to a type of treatment that involves treating teeth that have experienced trauma or have broken off. This type of treatment is done by using calcium hydroxide or endodontic cement. The results of this type of treatment are both clinical and histological.

Calcium hydroxide

Calcium hydroxide is an age-old, traditional therapeutic agent. It has a wide variety of uses. Most notably, it is used in apexogenetic dental procedures. This is a procedure that caps the pulp of an injured tooth.

In this procedure, calcium hydroxide is applied to the damaged pulp. The purpose of this therapy is to stimulate apical closure. However, this method can lead to reinfection and weaken the root structure. To avoid these risks, it is essential to follow an aseptic technique.

In addition to apexogenesis, calcium hydroxide can be used to repair or fill a root canal. Its advantages include being a more cost-effective solution. There are several preparations of calcium hydroxide; however, some are more costly.

Traditionally, calcium hydroxide is only available in powder form. This is because it is activated by moisture. A paste is then placed over the pulp tissue to serve as a wound dressing.

Calcium hydroxide is also a useful material for revascularization. Revascularization allows the continued edification of the root.

Endodontic cement

Apexogenesis is a relatively new procedure in the realm of endodontics. The goal is to stimulate the formation of a dentin bridge to fill in the gaps between the apex and the crown. A biocompatible cement is then deposited on the exposed pulp tissue.

This is a fairly short procedure requiring the use of hand files and calcium hydroxide paste. It is not as easy as it sounds. In a typical case, the radicular pulp is inflamed, and the tooth needs to be restored. To prevent any future recurrences, the dentist needs to create an apical barrier using calcium hydroxide and a splint.

One case in point was an eight-year-old boy who was referred to a clinic after suffering impact trauma to his front teeth. On clinical examination, the patient was found to have 11 lateral luxations and 21 subluxations. But he also exhibited intraoral swelling. After a series of diagnostic tests, it was determined that the crown was fractured in a number of places.

Clinical and histological results

Apexogenesis is a procedure used in endodontics to seal wide-open apexes. It is designed to preserve vital pulp tissue and promote continued root development. The procedure requires repeated treatment visits, and results may be delayed.

It is recommended for young permanent teeth that show signs of pulp necrosis. However, there are no reports on long-term clinical results. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the outcomes. Among the procedures, Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA) is used to achieve this goal.

In an attempt to address the shortcomings of conventional root canal therapy, apexogenesis was developed. This procedure involves removing tissue with a diamond bur at high speed, thus minimizing the damage to the underlying pulp tissue.

A group of 13 human pulp samples were evaluated. Their radiographic and histological findings were compared with those of healthy teeth. Results were analyzed using Fisher’s exact test.

The tissue sections were assessed for the presence of inflammation. The inflammatory cells were absent in cases of necrosis.

Treatment for traumatized teeth

Apexogenesis is an alternative method for treating traumatized teeth. It is a regenerative procedure that promotes root development. It is not a replacement for a root canal but rather strengthens the tooth naturally.

This technique has been shown to have a good prognosis. The prognosis is influenced by the severity of the injury. When a tooth is severely traumatized, the risk of resorption may increase.

Traumatic injuries occur for several reasons, including bad bites, sports injuries, accidents, and traumatic occlusion. These types of dental problems can lead to pain, apical periapical lesions, and pulp necrosis.

Treatment for traumatized teeth should begin immediately. The best time to save the tooth is the first hour after the trauma. Some cases may be irreversible and require surgical procedures.

Treatment for traumatized, immature teeth can vary among dentists. Some use apexogenesis or vital pulp therapy. Others obturate the root canal with a composite resin.

A tooth with necrotic pulp is usually not responsive to cold sensibility tests. The pulp is then removed and filled with bioceramic material.